Gage R&R


You step on the scale and it is saying “95 kg”. This cannot be true! Is the scale broken? You step on it again, this time it measures only 93kg. You are calling your sister to also step on the scale. Wow, you are already in a Gage R&R study. It will indicate where the issue comes from: Was it all these tasty cakes you’ve had over the last weeks or is it the scale itself?

check your knowledge  


Gage R&R (Repeatability & Reproducibility) is a statistical technique within the broader Measurement System Analysis (MSA) field used to quantify the precision of the measurement system. In a nutshell, it helps distinguish what portion of the variation observed in the data is due to the actual object or is due to the precision (or lack thereof) of the measurement system.

It may be used before trusting any data coming from a measurement system. Typical areas of application: method validation and method transfer, process improvement and process control. 




Click here to test your Gage R&R fitness! You will find a quiz and small case studies for practical application. 5min for learning and having fun..

check your knowledge  

Precision in this context is defined by two components:

  • Repeatability: variation within the measuring system or the variation observed when the same operator measures the same part repeatedly with the same device.

  • Reproducibility: variation due to different measuring devices or the variation observed when different operators measure the same part using the same device. 

How to measure precision of a measurement system in a Gage R&R Analysis. Pragmatic explanation & formula.


  1. Take parts representative of the process (usually 10 parts), making sure that they represent the full variation of the process.
  2. Let one appraiser measure all parts.
  3. Repeat step 2 for the same appraiser (keeping the parts in random order to have the appraiser “blind”) at least once, better twice.
  4. Let a second (and third) appraiser repeat steps 2 and 3:
  • If the measurement process doesn’t depend on people, reproduce the measurements with other measurement equipment
  • If there is only one person and set of equipment doing the measurements leave the reproducibility out of the study
  1. Run the tests with a statistical software and analyze the results.

In Gage R&R studies it often matters how many tests are required to achieve reliable data.



Our Courses 


% R&R

Describes the variation of the measurement system in comparison to the total variation.

How to describe and how to calculate the variation of a measurement system in comparison to total variation. Formula. Explanation.

The acceptance criteria for this metric is the following:

  • %R&R < 10%             : the system can distinguish the variation in the parts reliably and is considered a very precise measurement system.
  • 10% < %R&R < 30%  : the system is considered precise enough.
  • %R&R> 30%              : the measurement system is considered unacceptable and must be improved.

% P/T

Describes the variation of the measurement system in comparison to the part´s tolerances. This is important to make sure you do not send bad parts to customers nor to scrap good parts.

How to measure precision of a measurement system in comparison to a part‘s tolerance. How to describe P over T. Gage R&R. Measurement System Analysis.

The acceptance criteria for this metric is the following:

  • % P/T< 10%               : the system can distinguish the good from the bad parts reliably on a very good level.
  • 10% < % P/T < 30%  : the system is considered to distinguish good and bad parts precisely enough.
  • % P/T> 30%              : the measurement system is not able to detect bad parts and accept good parts consistently. It must be improved.

If your measurement system analysis should be done for discrete data, you should work with Attributive Agreement Analysis. For example, if your data is based on qualitative evaluations. 





Join our next Green Belt Training to get certified in systematic process improvement.

Join the open green belt  




Join our next Black Belt Training to get ready to lead the improvement.

Join the open black belt